THE RIVER PENZHINA AND THE UPPER PART OF PENZHINSKAYA BAY (NORTHWEST KAMCHATKA): RESULTS OF COMPLEX STUDYING IN 2014
The collection represents first results of joint KamchatNIRO, VNIRO and Lomonosov Moscow State University expedition to the estuary of Penzhina and Talovka Rivers (Northwest Kamchatka) in July-September in 2014. It includes materials about geomorphological structure and climate conditions of the system and on hydrological regime of Penzhina River and upper part of Penzhina Bay. The collection also provides results of studying river ichthyofauna in Penzhina and Talovka, some data on long-term dynamics and modern state of commercial fish resources within the district and ecological characterization of the hydrobiont community in the estuary of mentioned rivers.
The articles included into the collection will be interesting for specialists in various fields of geography and biology, for university students and workers of fisheries, engaged in studying and exploitation of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems.
RELIEF AND LOOSE SEDIMENTS OF THE PENZHINA RIVER DOWNSTREAM AND THE ADJACENT PART OF PENZHINskayA BAY
RELIEF, QUATERNARY SEDIMENTS, PENZHINA RIVER, TIDAL FLAT, VALLEY TERRACES, ABRASION
The paper contains description of geological structure and relief of the valley of the Penzhina River from Ayanka Village to estuary and of the part of Penzhinskaya Bay adjacent to the estuary, examined in the course of field work in August of 2014. Mesozoic and Cenozoic main pre-Quaternary rock complexes were analyzed. The principal attention in the research was concentrated to study coastal structure, and basis geomorphological levels have been revealed in this way. Detailed description of the composition of sediments, of the tidal flat relief and of the types and the distribution of modern geomorphological processes was made first time. Erosion of dense clay (presumably of lake origin) in the baseground of low terraces was found to be a cause of typically high water turbidity during tidal fluctuations in the Penzhina River mouth area. Signs of intense coastal erosion during the high tides and surges have been revealed. Division into districts for the Penzhina River valley has been provided on the base of examined shore morphology, flow rate and composition of alluvial forms.
PENZHINA RIVER BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE DURING THE SECOND HALFOF THE XX – THE BEGINNING OF THE XX I CENTURIES
O.A. Shilovtseva, N.N. Shabanova, N.K. Kononova
REGIONAL CLIMAT, KAMCHATKA, PENZHINA RIVER, SURFACE AIR TEMPERATURE, PRECIPITATION, REANALIS ERA INTERIM, TYPISATION OF DZERDZEYEVSKY, NET RADIATION
The time course of air temperature and precipitation for the whole period of ground-based observations at three meteorological stations of Penzhinsky District of Kamchatsky Krai — Kamensky, Slautnoe and Verkhnyaya Penzhina were examined. These observations were compared with reanalysis ERA Interim data. Temporal variability of radiation and circulating factors forming the climate change were analyzed. Their tendencies are agree well with trends of meteorological parameters. During the period 1950–2013 in the basin of Penzhina climate became warmer on the 1 °C. The average monthly temperature increase is marked in the nine months of 12 (significance level P less than 0.1). During the May–August the warming is most noticeable (P< 0.01). However, in January there is significantly colder (on the 6.5 °C over the same period). At the same time, the yearly amount of precipitation decreased by 80 mm (for the period 1966–2013, P=0.1). In winter the decrease of precipitation is the most significant (P<0.05), during the warmer period of the year the increase of precipitation takes place in the some of months. Calculations by ERA Interim well reproduce the interannual air temperature fluctuations, satisfactory — fluctuations in precipitation, somewhat overestimated the absolute values.
MODERN HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF THE PENZHINA RIVER DOWNSTREAM AND FIRST INFORMATION ABOUT HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE ESTUARY (ON RESULTS OF EXPEDITION 2014)
S.L. Gorin, М.V. Koval, А.А. Sazonov, P.N. Terskiy
HYDROLOGICAL REGIME , RUNOFF, THERMAL REGIME, ESTUARY, RIVER MOUTH AREA, WATER MASSES, MIXING WATERS, KAMCHATKA, PENZHIN ARIVER, PENZHINSKY BAY
The article demonstrates results of analysis of published and archive sources and authors’ field study in the last half of summer 2014. Hydrological regime of the Penzhina River downstream is characterized in details on the base of the results. It is found that the river runoff in 1990–2012 (comparing to 1957–1980) decreased and the temperature of the river water has increased. The upper edge of tidal spreading in the river is figured out: the tidal fluctuations can spread up to 52 km from the mouth, and the reverse currents and water temperature — respectively up to 30 and 11 kms. It is revealed, that the northeastern part of Penzhinsky Bay, nearest to the river, undergoes extensive freshening in summer. Freshening in the water in the most distant from the river part of the bay spreads more than over 60 km from the river mouth.
FRESHWATER ICHTHYOFAUNA OF THE PENZHINA AND TALOVKA RIVERS (NORTH-WEST KAMCHATKA)
М.V. Koval, Е.V. Esin, А.V. Bugaev, V.А. Karas’, S.L. Gorin, I.V. Shatilo, Е.G. Pogodaev, S.V. Shubkin, L.О. Zavarina, О.V. Frolov, M.V. Zharavin, S.V. Koptev
FRESHWATER ICHTHYOFAUNA, SPECIES COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION, POPULATION STRUCTURE, FOOD COMPOSITION, COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE, PENZHINA RIVER, TALOVKA RIVER, KAMCHATKA
Revision of the composition of freshwater ichthyofauna of the Penzhina and Talovka Rivers is made on the base of current and archive literature sources and field materials for May–October, 2008–2014. Distribution, life cycle, population structure and feeding has been clarified for 21 species of local fish fauna, and history of forming local freshwater fish communities has been suggested. Local names, morphological description and original images of the fish have been provided. Current state of population abundance and commercial status has been estimated. It has been revealed that in current physical and geographic conditions revised systems operate as one spawningnursery system for majority of resident species, because the overlapping mouths of the systems and freshening in summer months create extensive transit habitat for the fish. United population systems in the rivers are used by some of semi-anadromous and anadromous species, including pond smelt and toothed smelt, chum and pink salmon, ninespine stickleback and most likely threespine stickleback. The biological specifics of the residential fish populations in the systems is determined by features of local habitat conditions and community-supported fishery. Judging by majority of biological indexes, the Talovka River provides favorable feeding and spawning conditions for limnetic-fluvial and limnophylic species, whereas the Penzhina River – for fluvial and reophilic ones. Comparing the other river systems in the North-East of Russia, the conditions in the Penzhina and Talovka Rivers are generally more favorable for majority of resident fish populations. It is due to mild climate, stable feeding conditions for the fish of all age groups and types of feeding and low fishery pressure to the populations.
LONGTERM DYNAMICS AND MODERN STATE OF COMMERCIAL FISH RESOURCE IN THE PENZHINA AND TALOVKA RIVERS (NORTHWEST KAMCHATKA)
М.V. Koval, S.L. Gorin, А.V. Bugaev, О.V. Frolov, М.V. Zharavin
COMMERCIAL FISHES, STOCK ABUNDANCE, FISHERY, COMMUNITY-SUPPORTED FISHING, CATCH PER UNIT EFFORT, PENZHINA RIVER, TALOVKA RIVER, KAMCHATKA
Modern state and long-term dynamics of commercial fish species resource was studied first time in the rivers Penzhina and Talovka (Northwest Kamchatka) on the base of available modern and archive literature data and results obtained by authors in 2014. It has been found that the most perspective commercial objects in the systems of the rivers would be chum salmon, Kamchatka grayling, pike, round whitefish, pizhyan and burbot, whereas in the mouth area — smelts and saffron cod. There is no commercial fishing now in the area mentioned. A small part of this resource has been developing by local native people for food or for purposes of sport or amateur fishing only. Stock of broad whitefish has been undermined in recent years in view of in-fact absence of state control, and now the species does not play commercial role anymore. Populations of Penzhina omul and siberian cisco also have been under intense pressure of amateur fishing, what is determining stock abundance decrease in the coming years.
ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF NECTOBENTHOS AND JUVENILE FISH COMMUNITY OF HYPERTIDAL ESTUARY OF PENZHINA AND TALOVKA RIVERS (NORTHWEST KAMCHATKA) IN AUGUST 2014
M.V. Koval, S.L. Gorin, А.А. Kalugin
MOUTH AREA, ESTUARY, JUVENILE FISH, NECTOBENTHOS, STOCK ABUNDANCE, BIOMASS, MIGRATION, FOOD COMPOSITION, ECOSYSTEM, PENZHINA RIVER, TALOVKA RIVER, KAMCHATKA
The article demonstrates preliminary results of ichthyological research, carried out in August 2014 in the mouth area of Penzhina and Talovka Rivers and in the adjacent waters of Penzhinskaya Bay (the hypertidal estuary of Penzhina and Talovka). Habitat abiotic conditions, species composition and spatial distribution of hydrobiont communities, distribution density and migrations of hydrobionts in the estuary were estimated. Biological parameters (size and age composition) of fish and nectobenthos (size composition) was made, and juvenile fish feeding and food interactions were studied. Anthropogenic effects in the ecosystem of the estuary were estimated. A huge difference in biological diversity due to the occurrence of continental fish fauna representatives (absent in the other rivers of Kamchatka) was revealed for the estuary of Penzhina and Talovka comparing it to the other river mouth areas in Kamchatka Peninsula. Moreover, some mass coastal fish species, regular in the other rivers of the Sea of Okhotsk system, were not observed in mentioned estuary. The specifics of the species composition of the fish community in studied estuary directly relates to the specifics of physical and geographical conditions in the system of Penzhina and Talovka and to the features of hydrological regime in the upper part of Penzhinskaya Bay. The estuary is much more productive in the biological sense comparing it to all other studied river estuaries in Kamchatka. An indication of that is a high abundance and biomass of hydrobionts, a narrow spectrum of food and a high intensity of juvenile feeding of all fish species. It has been suggested that principal determinants of the high production ability of the estuary are a great flow of organic matter with the runoff from the Penzhina and Talovka Rivers (what creates a basis of trophic pyramid) and almost absolute absence of anthropogenic pressure on the local ecosystem.